Page 107 - MIGRATION

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105
MIGRATION, MEMORY, HERITAGE: SOCIO-CULTURAL
APPROACHES TO THE BULGARIAN-TURKISH BORDER
unpredictable residual, i.e. that which does not yield to normalization, will be suppressed (in the
psychoanalytical sense) and turned into “unconscious” which glimmers beneath, in the form of
social lapsus. Through this mechanism the private expectations and hopes of parents bestowing
“inheritance” (“father’s estate”or “the inheritance on the mother’s side”, cultural capital, educational
such, professionalism and profession, talent or beauty and the aesthetic sense, love for science
or faith in God as different modalities of “inheritance” which accomplish in socioanalytical terms
that “tendency to perpetuate in one’s very being”) are met when the child responds by accepting
the “inheritance” and in return bestows his parents with successful inheriting. Therefore, the
different mechanisms of “inheriting”, which are characteristic of a certain group are destined to
lead to the establishment of an ontological complicity between legitimate social positions and
non-contradictory biographical trajectories which is a prerequisite for the construction of non-
contradictory biographical
illusio
: in the particular cases under discussion here – to be an inheritor
of the Thracian refugees or of the Bulgarian out-migrants to Turkey. In other words, to form on the
pre-reflexive level a specific habitus of an “inheritor” to the respective group. How this happens “in
practice” is what I discuss in the paragraphs which follow.
In our case in point, it is important to flesh out the repertoire of possible variations, i.e. the
different
modi of inheriting
. The emphasis is key, since it is precisely along the lines of different
slippages, contestations, contradictions – a characteristic feature of the educational institutions,
the judgements and normative sanctions of which “may confirm, but may well also contradict or
counter, those of the family”and be“the altogether decisive contributions to identity construction”
(Bourdieu 1999: 507)
12
– and of the different forms of acceptance, agreement, co-actions and
complicities that we see all those
contradictory and dual processes of inheriting
. When we
multiply these
modi of inheriting
by the double relational structure of probability (simultaneously at
the objective and subjective levels), there appears a significant ambiguity. This ambiguity, however,
increases the range of possible freedoms and consequently frees space for action in which there
may appear heterogeneous and heterodoxic discursive strategies which have the capacity to
question the already established arrangement between objective chances and subjective interests.
This space for discursive action is expectant with “gaps” in the system of possibilities, with possible
“thresholds”and“ruptures” in relation to the sites, statii, and positions of the agent who“inherits”or
“is inherited”.
12 This is an especially important motive with regard to the empirical case study I consider here, insofar as it
is related to the mechanisms of giving/receiving ethnic identity, i.e. to those “contradictory inheritors” we studied
with Meglena Zlatkova and which we defines as ‘the 30’s generation’ (See on this Zlatkova, Penkova 2011). What is
characteristic of them? This is the generation born in Bulgaria, the members of which underwent primary socialization
in the social space in Bulgaria. When their parents immigrated to Turkey and in their capacity of children of “Bulgarian
out-migrants” to Turkey, they are forced to repeat a school year, so as to adapt and successfully socialize in the new
social space. The role of the Turkish school in this case is crucial indeed – it is that which has to assist in this process of
socialization, consequently its normative coercion and sanctions have to not only function with maximum efficiency,
but also have to enhance their influence on the
‘former-Bulgarian-pupils-who-have-to-prepare-to-be-good-Bulgarian-
citizens’
so as to transform them into
‘current-Turkish-pupils-who-have-to-prepare-to-be-good-Turkish-citizens’
. Very
often this also goes hand in hand with opposing family inheritance (for instance, the majority of these children very
quickly forget the Bulgarian language, even if it is still being spoken in the family precisely as a countermeasure to
“forgetting” it). Other similar effects can be seen in the refusal to visit the relatives in Bulgaria, the feeling that they are
out of place “there”, which used to be my “here”. This feeling is also contradictory, because these “inheritors” have in
fact inherited at the institutional level their dual citizenship, being simultaneously citizens of Turkey and of Bulgaria.